Fit to Serve

As often occurs in the fall, I fly in late on a Saturday night after teaching a workshop with Lee. It’s a scramble, but Sunday morning, I’m sitting in church because the rest of my family’s there, but also because my dad’s the guy standing at the front of the church. My dad’s a preacher, if you didn’t know.

photoThis Sunday there was a responsive reading at the beginning of the service because it was Veteran’s Sunday. A very powerful reading was in our church bulletin, and the service was wrapped around that. I want to share that with you.

It was very timely for me to see Dr. Ed Thomas’s new video this morning. The video, entitled Fit to Serve, is something I think everyone needs to watch, and then simply think about. If it compels you to take action in some way, that’s fine, but at least just think about it. We owe our veterans and we owe our wounded warriors that much consideration.

ed-thomasIt never ceases to amaze me when I talk with Ed Thomas, or get to hear him narrate some unbelievably profound visual images. He’s a wordsmith in the way he communicates a message. What we have in Dr. Thomas is a physical educator, someone who took physical education to the doctoral level.

This is not a guy who chose physical education, teaching and coaching so he could take summers off. This is someone who realized his way to better humanity is in physical culture, in the physical arts, and in physical development.

I think about how our country would take action if we saw the illiteracy all of the sudden just stay on an decline. What would we’d do if we had children who couldn’t do simple math in their heads? The actions our government would take if we couldn’t read or intelligently work with numbers would be immediate, and all-encompassing.

military squatYet we’ve had a physical decline in our fitness and culture for quite some time.

obstacle-climbEd captures this by looking in the petri dish of the US military. Everything that’s happening in our military—or was happening in our military—is literally a sign of the times, and is just a picture of our overall population.

When we post fitness articles and interviews and videos on the internet, let’s be honest: Most people are interested in those because of a physical aesthetic they’re trying to achieve or an athletic goal they’re trying to bring about.

But when we talk about fitness, when we talk about fire fighters or the military, the police or some other public service like first responders, these are people who sacrifice their lives, their health and sometimes their fitness to perform  a service.

Those of us who get the opportunity to train those people should feel an extra degree of connection to this. Every one of us can do something to foster the integrity of physical culture, not just in the military or first responders, but all the way to the school system.

As you watch Ed’s video, and as you review other fitness or athletic development articles, consider this: How much of this information is making it into the military, or into our 7th grade PE classes?

This is where I think our true physical fitness model must be present and demonstrate effectiveness in the way we prepare people to defend our values, and in the way we decide to grow our children. I think Ed Thomas speaks intelligently to both those.

Now I’m going to embed some other videos from this brilliant man, who has served us both as a veteran and continues to serve us with his insight today.

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Isolation vs Movement Patterns

I have no real animosity toward isolation exercises, but in my past I found many people tried to use an isolation exercise to enhance a movement pattern. When I investigated why they picked a particular muscle group, let’s say the quads to address a fault where the trunk is wavering back and forth in the lunge, people often make a few assumptions. They automatically think it’s the front quad, that there’s no strength there.

gray-half-kneel We could do some other assessments or some other movements and show that it could be trunk control. It could be an ankle awareness problem. Maybe the person had multiple sprained ankles and just doesn’t have a lot of sensory information. We might need to train that first. Isolation in many cases follows an assumption of what we think is kinesiology.

Sometimes we see somebody who has a quad that’s two inches smaller on one side than the other. The hamstring seems to have adequate strength. There’s nothing wrong with the calf, but there had been an injury. The person learned how to move around without that quadriceps, and now when trying to do some form of squatting or lunging, it’s done without the quad.

There’s an actual medical term for this called ‘quad avoidance syndrome.’ But there are many other areas in the body we can selectively stop using if things haven’t been correctly managed after an injury.

In the instance above, there’s nothing else in the lunge pattern that needs to be trained. The person needs to reconnect the quad with the body map in the brain. We may actually start with some good ol’ knee extension exercises. Those knee extension machines are becoming more and more rare, but in this instance it would have a place.

The problem is that you have to be in a position to really test muscle weakness if you’re going to isolate. In this situation, isolating the quad would probably benefit the whole movement pattern. If you’ve had surgery, there’s a good chance if you’re my patient I may have to isolate something in your rehabilitation process.

We may also see a particular muscle group is deficient. When we look at function, everything else looks good. In that instance, it would be okay to isolate, but don’t assume isolation alone will make a movement pattern good.

long-beach-alwyn-cosgrove Remember, you have an excellent way to check it—just do some type of movement screening or look at the pattern after you’ve done a cycle of strengthening on that body part. You may have made it stronger, but that doesn’t mean it’s reintegrated into the map. Alwyn Cosgrove covers this well in our new Exercise Program DVD.

Now let’s talk about body sculpting for a minute. Maybe we have areas we’d like to see develop, and we have other areas that don’t seem to need a lot of work. For a lot of people, that means wanting to sculpt the body in a different way.

Here’s an interesting point: About 75% of the time, the worst movement patterns run right in line with the deficiencies we see in symmetry and development.

I worked with a lot of bodybuilders early in my career and it used to blow me away to discover the muscles they had the hardest time developing were also prime movers of patterns they didn’t do well.

I can spend time helping you re-pattern, and you can actually do something a little more functional and hit more muscle groups. Unless you’re at the elite level of bodybuilding, there’s a good chance we’re going to have greater gains working this movement-pattern deficiency.

Even in the extreme circumstances of wanting to develop a body part, the only way I’m going to agree with only doing isolation is if your movement screen is fairly clean and you have no movement deficiency.

We should still follow that movement map, and only after it’s clean would we attack a deficiency with specific isolation.

When we take a functional approach and really attack movement deficiencies with movement corrections, I would expect all kinds of new soreness you’ve never had because certain movement patterns were sort of turned off. They have the parking brake on a movement pattern.

Opening up movement patterns first changes everything. Once that muscle is activated, let’s go ahead and put it on isolation.

If you’re really intense on physique development, having somebody run a movement screen every two or three months when you’re training hard is not just this nice little test. It’s a GPS. It’ll point you in your next direction.

My big problem with isolation is not isolation. It’s the assumption that isolation will change movement without adequately checking strength to see if it’s only a single group problem, and without revisiting some type of movement map to see if it really did change something.

Isolation is an excellent tool to have. We just can’t lay assumptions on it.
For more on Gray’s thoughts about the pros and cons of isolation,
check out his talk,
Isolation: It’s Totally Natural.

The Future of Exercise Program Design

I’m a big stickler when it comes to laying out a program.

Let’s discuss the overall concept of programming and planning. In the back of the book Athletic Body in Balance, which is taking its 10-year anniversary lap, I talked about my dad’s most-used quote: Make your plan. Work your plan. I went into an explanation of that statement, because it doesn’t mean make a plan and then make your plan work.

The battle plan most generals come up with isn’t the one they finish with, but they have to start with a plan. A plan needs to be based on some metrics you can reproduce, and if somebody put you on the witness stand, the metrics would be strong enough to make you look credible. You don’t just follow a plan because it’s the plan you used yesterday. You make a plan based on science and based on the art and technology of the impact you’re trying to make.

Make your plan; work your plan means massaging that plan, making modifications, looking at your GPS and realizing if you’re a little off course. The way you work your plan is to not be obsessive-compulsive about every minor detail, and micro-manage the process.

It’s simply saying, ‘My goal is to be here by a certain time.’

If you’re not even close at the halfway point, you probably wouldn’t stay on the same program. That’s what my dad meant. Make your plan. Go forward. Pay attention. Watch what’s happening.

Are you ahead of schedule? Are you behind schedule? Are you heading in the wrong direction? Are you delivering what you said you could deliver through this plan?

abbNow let me tell you another story. I referenced a lot of John Wooden’s thoughts in Athletic Body in Balance, and also some of Bruce Lee’s material.

From a philosophical standpoint, I love the approach Bruce Lee brought back to martial arts. He re-energized the beauty, precision, technology and art of martial arts. He did it from a philosophical base by reminding us that many of the things we do are not as efficient or as practical as they could be, and if we continually work the plan, we can continue to make things better. We want to honor the history and to honor the classic teaching style, but when we can improve with new technology, new approaches and new paradigms, we should.

John Wooden was the basketball coach at UCLA, and many refer to him as one of the winning-est coaches of all time. But John Wooden didn’t consider himself just a coach. He was also a teacher. Even when he was coaching, he was continuously teaching. He had a method for doing everything, even something as simple as the way his players put on their socks. His ‘why’ statement—his rationale—was, ‘If you get a blister, you can’t practice tomorrow. Let’s pay attention to all the things other teams aren’t paying attention to.’

At the time, what struck me as a young coach, teacher, lecturer and therapist is that with all the prestige John Wooden had, he was essentially his own strength coach. He was the head coach of the basketball team, but he didn’t sub out the conditioning.

Here’s what he did. He created skill drills on the basketball court that put a spotlight on each of the very important movement parameters involved in a complete basketball game—a defending drill, a rebounding drill, a shooting drill, a stalling-the-clock time drill and others.

Small pods of athletes who had similar problems or similar responsibilities were grouped together. The competition drill was a microscopic aspect of a sport skill. They would go to a station, execute the sport skill and move to another station. The execution of the drill created some degree of fatigue. Moving to a new station offered very little rest breaks. What these drills taught was not only a higher skill rate within the drill, but the athletes had to recover from that energy expenditure on the fly. They had a very small rest break from which to regain composure, center their breathing, stabilize their focus and take action.

What do we do with the rest breaks when we work out? Do we really try to recover quicker? Do we focus on that?

ingridmarcumropesOne of the reasons I love battling ropes, jump rope and kettlebell swings and snatches is because there’s a huge metabolic demand. We’re going to get smoked—some people earlier and some people later—but we’re all going to get smoked.

But smoking you with one of these devices is not my goal. I want to find out how quick you can be ready to step up again. The point is to zero in on what you do in that rest break—regaining your composure, maybe working on a corrective area that tenses up really quickly with exertion, refocusing your breathing, doing something with your eyes or your posture to reset yourself.

How many of us can accelerate recovery? That’s a very important concept; it’s a great sidebar to consider.

John Wooden used basketball skill drills to create a metabolic demand to execute speed, agility, quickness, shot precision and more. Then, just like in a game with limited time to recover and rest, he moved the athletes to the next stations.

The beauty of this is that those 40 minutes didn’t just all happen by accident.

As accomplished as he was, John Wooden often spent two hours designing a 40-minute practice. That’s very, very important. He made a plan.

He knew exactly what was going to happen every second of the practice. By doing that, he kept people at or near the edge of ability, constantly digging, learning and refining patterns of movement.

Long Beach 1As technology and science continue to offer us more information about the people we train and rehabilitate, we have to realize that every time we introduce a new metric, we don’t have to completely gut the system. We just ask, What does this metric affect? Does it find a bottleneck we weren’t finding? Does it find an area of inefficiency?

I’m very excited about the newest DVD we just released called The Future of Exercise Program Design. I laid the groundwork in this DVD for how to think through what you already know, and then add the new information offered by movement screening. Movement screening wasn’t even an issue 15 years ago. It wasn’t something we considered. If we had an appreciation of movement patterns, it was because of our intuition or experience, not because of a formal metric or system. We now have that, but it sometimes creates just as much confusion for some people as it does success for others.

Long Beach 12Lee and I worked on this DVD to show people they don’t have to throw away their programs. They just have to listen to what the movement metric and the movement information is saying about the success or lack of success in training movement patterns, as well as metabolism, sport skill, body symmetry, muscle development, endurance, stamina, speed and quickness.

Long Beach 5But star of this show is Alwyn Cosgrove. He comes up like a true coach with his dry-erase board and starts talking program design. I appreciate listening to Alwyn lecture because as part of the audience, we realize he’s not just a professional lecturer. He’s deeply involved in program design in his facility. He’s thought about it. He’s the kind of guy who spends two hours figuring out a 40-minute workout.

Once you do that a few times, your brain gains a precision in finding wasted time in a workout. By doing these program designs, by listening to the things on this DVD and by studying coaches like John Wooden, you become an economist. You manage a scarce resource… and that scarce resource is training time for you and your clients. You want the maximum benefit from that scare resource.

Most of us want to be fit, not simply so we can say we’re fit, but also so we can participate in every opportunity of adventure, activity, movement, exercise or competition. I want you to look at this programming DVD as a way to get a competitive advantage. People sometimes feel the movement screen is constrictive to their programs. It’s not; instead, it shows you where your program is constrictive.

It’s giving you a competitive advantage.

Click here to order the Future of Exercise Programming DVD.

The Three Rs

We use the three Rs concept in rehabilitation and exercise to create a checklist. Here’s what I mean by that: Imagine that each R has a box next to it—you’ll check off that box before moving to the next R.

threeRs Now I’ll tell you what the Rs are: Reset, Reinforce and Reload.

The first time I addressed this concept was to a group of physical therapists in Amsterdam. They were trying to get their heads around the reason we need to look at movement before a lot of other medically condoned breakdown tests.

We’re trying to capture movement dysfunction at the level of the pattern—not just having an assumption the glutes are weak, or measuring a lack of dorsiflexion. My first role is to demonstrate how perhaps glute weakness affects a movement pattern, or how the dorsiflexion limitation may provide a poor foundation and create faulty balance.

We can go through the body with checklist of the many imperfections we all carry, or we could try to discover each individual’s major dysfunctions. We could then work back from those dysfunctions to find what we think are some of the driving forces behind them.

Once we do that, our intervention requires that we do something. What’s the first something we do? Reset.

If you’d prefer to listen instead of read,
here’s a longer audio version of this article,
Episode 21 of Gray Cook Radio

In clinical rehabilitation, we have to make an intervention. We don’t just tell people to do more of an exercise. Usually these people are in pain. If they could do more, they would, but they’re limited by pain or disability… and they can’t.

Many times, we have to use manual therapy to help them climb out of the well. The first order of business is to see if inflammation is driving the system, because if it is, we consider that a chemical problem, not a mechanical problem. As long as you have inflammation on board, you’re going to have inappropriate signals, inappropriate muscle tone and poor movement patterns.

Imagine you hurt an ankle. It’s red, hot, swollen and twice the size of the other ankle. Today is not a good day for squats. As a matter of fact, today’s not even a good day for walking. Today’s a good day to get rid of that inflammation.

We’ve clinically demonstrated that when your joints are swollen or effused, you immediately have reciprocal muscle inhibition. The muscles around that joint are inhibited by the swelling. Pushing your way through joint pain or a swollen or inflamed joint doesn’t make sense on any level, much less on a neurological level.

Let’s say inflammation has been appropriately managed by modalities, medications and behavioral modifications of rest and recovery. We might still see poor motor control or poor movement mechanics. It could be because of the time spent not doing anything, or it could be because of the behaviors associated with limping, bending, twisting and compensation after the injury.

In this example, for all practical purposes there’s no longer a chemical problem because we’ve managed the activity level. We don’t have a lot of inflammation. There are the after-effects of the trauma, but the inflammation is gone.

We still have poor motor control. We could have a certain degree of muscle atrophy. We could have uncoordinated muscle behavior. We could have increased tone. We could have residual trigger points. What we have to do is identify, What are those motor control and movement limitations? What are the problems with mobility and stability?

clinic In rehabilitation, we make a manual intervention. We might hold a joint with our hands and mobilize or manipulate that joint. We do soft tissue work either with our hands or tools, and work deep into the tissue or on the fascia. We might use needles to do a musculoskeletal technique called trigger point dry needling.

We’re going to do something physical to see if we can change motor control or mobility. If you couldn’t bend forward and we saw some stiff vertebral segments, we may want to mobilize those.

Moving those segments completely changes the neuromuscular support around that joint. It may free up some muscle tone and allow you to move through your spine a little bit better. This is still without suggesting an exercise or making you actively do anything.

We did something passively, meaning your role was passive. At the end of that, we should see an appreciable change in something we measured. Did your level of control go up or did mobility improve? If it did, clinically that could be considered a reset.

It’s a window of opportunity.

gray cook long beach The first thing we want to do is protect the reset. Having you jump off the table to go play 36 holes of golf is not a real good plan. What I’m going to do is reinforce the change I just made.

There are two ways to do that—Both protective and corrective measures can do that.

Protective measures keep you from getting worse, but may not make you better. Corrective measures actually work toward helping you foster or start the reset process yourself.

If I thought sleeping on your stomach might be complicating your neck problems, I might give you some advice on lifestyle. I might give you a brace or an orthotic, but I might also use some leukotape or kinesiotape to hopefully facilitate better activity or enhance the feedback when you move. This reinforcement doesn’t push you farther along; it keeps you from backsliding between therapy sessions.

The reloading is where we actually teach exercise and look for a pattern or a part of a pattern to reinstate motor control. It would be futile to try to reload something if we didn’t have good reinforcement. We’d continually be taking two steps forward and three steps backward.

It would also be inappropriate to expect you to fix it yourself when part of this vicious loop of moving poorly and not sensing enough information to self-correct will perpetuate itself.

The reset is a largely passive activity on the patient’s part.

The reinforcement is where we do lifestyle management and offer conservative advice.

The reloading is therapeutic exercise.

glute-medius You have no idea how many people come to our workshops, dispense with some of the advice we give, attempt a corrective maneuver on somebody who probably needs some manual intervention and some lifestyle critique, and hope that half-kneeling for four minutes a day will correct all the ailments discovered on a movement assessment.

I just gave you a medical scenario. However, I can completely turn these three Rs into corrective strategy used both in fitness and performance enhancement when people have movement dysfunction  not complicated by pain.

The corrective strategy we impose may be foam rolling. It may be stretching. It may be static stability. It may be dynamic stability. But if we’re doing it right, the reset can demonstrate how the movement has changed.

How do we know the movement has changed? We’ve done a movement screen.

What are some of the things we can do to reinforce the corrective strategy? We may have to temporarily delete some activities. If we think your attention to detail in your kettlebell swings is sloppy, we may have to pull you back from that to get you moving. This will give you a better platform to have more attention to detail in your swings the next time out.

I didn’t say you couldn’t deadlift. I didn’t say you couldn’t work on your presses. I just said, ‘Your swings are not too good right now.’

Part of what I’m going to do to reinforce you not backsliding in your program is to temporarily delete an exercise.

I often have to do this for runners. Compounding a stride or gait pattern with more mileage probably isn’t going to get them any faster or make them a better runners.  A lot of runners have gotten better by cutting back their running. A lot of lifters have gotten better by deleting a lift they weren’t doing correctly until they’re doing it better.

program design dvd Reloading is also about programming. Programming could mean using a corrective strategy blended with some conditioning work, such as using supersets to establish better hip hinging and then doing deadlifts, and then maybe add some swings. We cover that in our forthcoming DVD, The Future of Exercise Program Design, due out in October.

This whole reset, reinforce and reload can be applied to both rehabilitation and exercise. In rehabilitation, we’re dealing with both pain and dysfunction. In exercise professions if people are acting as they should, we’re only really dealing with dysfunction.

If you identify pain, it’s not a fitness problem anymore. It’s a health problem. Let somebody who is licensed in healthcare deal with it or you’ll be banging your head against the wall looking for a new exercise for something that’s not a fitness problem.

Reset, reinforce and reload is a pretty simple concept, but don’t just do it and assume success. The way for you to know you did a reset is to see that you changed something, and you changed it without a lot of programming. You changed it in a very short session—often in a single session.

Then think what you can do to reinforce that, both by deleting things—being protective—and maybe by adding behaviors, which is being corrective.

For example, you might say, “I want you to superset this movement with a flexibility move every time you do it. I never want you working on your squat without doing squat mobility work first.”

One reinforces the other.

Then the reloading is the programming that maintains and supports the gains you’ve made.

But remember this: The three Rs don’t work if you don’t have a baseline.

If you have a baseline for movement, you can tell yourself whether you have permission to go from one box to the next because you’ll know you changed something. A couple of weeks down the road you’ll know if you have maintained something and reinforced it, and you’ll know if your programming is efficient.

It’s a mouthful, but I’ll tell you what: If you check those reset, reinforce and reload boxes, it might real hard. But it’ll make you better.

I talked about the 3Rs in this new lecture for

No Moving Parts

I love the concept of ‘no moving parts.’ No moving parts to me is yet another way to say we’re not a bunch of body parts moving around.. We’re movement patterns, and the parts are key components.

When there’s a problem, obviously we talk about problematic the body part. But I’ve always tried to say and I tried to articulate this in the Movement book: You’re always greater than the sum of your parts.

If you’d prefer to listen instead of read,
here’s a longer version of this article,
Episode 37 of Gray Cook Radio,

No Moving PartsA movement pattern is the first and best way to look at movement, and then we work backward breaking it into parts. I just love the title No Moving Parts. You may even see me use it again somewhere.

We’re moving patterns. Parts are within that.

We don’t talk about a car as nuts and bolts, but those are very important in holding that car together as it goes down the road. There’s no point going down the road when we have to stop and talk about a particular nut or bolt.

We would do that when the car is stopped and we’re investigating a flaw, a problem somewhere. When we’re going through mountain turns, we just appreciate the way the car handles.

But no moving parts means something else. I’ve spent the last five years of my life investing myself in three activities that don’t involve any moving parts. I’ve been into paddle sports, in particular stand-up paddle boarding. I’ve been trail running and I’ve been into kettlebells.

The kettlebell is an old piece of resistance equipment. It has no moving parts, and the majority of the lifts either keep you on your feet or get you to your feet. Think about that. A windmill, a swing, a snatch, a clean, a squat and even the getup all have you working on your feet.

There are no moving parts on the kettlebell. You have to have the skill to flip that kettlebell into place in a clean or a snatch. You have to balance that kettlebell. You and your patterns account for this rigid ball of metal and you make it flow beautifully through the air.

If we compare that to modern fitness and weight-training equipment, we see those always position you. We have cams and levers assisting you with what you do. The skill level needed to work out on a piece of equipment is nowhere near as great as when you work out with a kettlebell.

The kettlebell begs you to be more skillful. A lot of time and practice goes into safely performing and functioning with a kettlebell to get a workout. You have to think more, and you have to practice more.

What I mean by practice isn’t training or working out. It’s making the moves look good—making them look good.

The side effect of a day of making stuff look good is a heck of a workout, but think about all the motor memory you gained by doing a kettlebell workout as if Brett Jones is standing there watching you. I can attest to the value of that; I’ve done that.

Let’s flip things for a minute. Think about trail running. If you’re running barefoot or in minimalist footwear, other than whatever you have on your feet, you don’t need a machine to run trails.

I love mountain biking, but I found myself on a bike trail thinking, I’m on this expensive piece of equipment, and except for the downhills I could probably make better progress on my feet. The bike is unnecessary.

This doesn’t mean I’m against biking, but at my age with everything I have going on, I like a simple life. Not needing to take a bike along, or deal with the moving parts and tune-ups all of these machines inevitably need is not even on the table anymore.

GrayrainforestAs long as I have a pair of shoes, I can run anywhere. I prefer to run in a natural environment with changing terrain. That change keeps me engaged and helps me focus on what I’m doing. As the terrain and scenery changes, all I focus on is keeping my cadence.

Once again, I’m not relying on a machine with moving parts. I’m using my movement patterns.

And there’s stand-up paddleboarding. This isn’t a machine. It’s basically two pieces of sculpture. The paddleboard is designed to slice through the water, yet be supportive enough to balance you. Then if it’s designed correctly, the paddle makes it easy to feel like you’re planting your paddle into quicksand. When you pull on the paddle, you’re not moving water. You’re moving the paddleboard. There’s a lot of skill involved.

There’s a lot of skill involved in all three of these activities. Getting that kettlebell to look good takes a lot of skill. Bringing respect to a trail run takes a lot of skill.

Every spring and summer, Christopher McDougall’s book Born to Run makes me think about the amazing stories and analogies of getting into a natural environment and getting that short, choppy, very efficient cadence in running. Running is a skill. Learning how to run almost silently demonstrates a good management of energy expenditure.

Erwan-paddleboardThe essence of stand-up paddling is the forward stroke and that initial catch where you plant your paddle in the water and don’t make a lot of noise. If you do it right, the architecture of the paddle creates a bunch of resistance, almost like planting that paddle in mud. Learning how to pull on that, not with your biceps but with your lats and in a hip hinge—it’s awesome.

There’s a rhythmical, skillful way to train with kettlebells. There’s a rhythmical, skillful way to perform a trail run. There’s a rhythmical, skillful way to get on a stand-up paddleboard and just detach.

In a lot of these activities, I am totally engaged. I’m managing my entire body the whole time. And in every one of these activities, I’m on my feet.

Yeah, I fall off the paddleboard. I’m not saying I haven’t slipped and fallen during a trail run. For the most part, I’m in a functional position and I’m moving. It’s just amazing to interact with these three activities and realize that my gear is minimal. The gear I do have has no moving parts. If I’m going to make these activities look good, it’s because my patterns are better.

I hope you like my spin on this. I don’t mean to bore you with my three favorite fitness tools. As I age, I like to simplify, but I also like to tap into self-limiting activities because in many cases, I’m coaching myself.